The parties to the Paris Agreement have agreed to update their 2030 targets, in line with the latest information on the rest of the global carbon budget. An IPCC special report on mitigating warming to 1.5°C, completed in 2018, showed that the climate goals that countries believe they can achieve are not enough to halt global warming (see “Climate Commitments”). The main objective of the agreement is to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels”, including by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement differs from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the last widespread amendment to the UNFCCC, in the absence of annexes aimed at reducing the liability of developing countries. On the contrary, emissions targets for each nation were negotiated separately and must be applied voluntarily, leading U.S. officials to view the Paris Agreement as an executive agreement and not a legally binding treaty. This dispelled the requirement for the U.S. Congress to ratify the agreement.  In April 2016, the United States became a signatory to the Paris Agreement and accepted it by executive order in September 2016.
President Obama has committed the United States to contribute $3 billion to the Green Climate Fund.  The Fund has set itself the goal of raising $100 billion a year by 2020. In response to the following week`s withdrawal, the governors of California, New York and Washington created the U.S. Climate Alliance and promised to keep the Paris Agreement within their borders.   On the evening of June 1, 2017, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Oregon, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginia announced their intention to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement with members of the United States Climate Alliance. Governors of other states have also expressed interest in complying with the agreement.    As of November 2020, the Alliance had 24 states, as well as Puerto Rico and American Samoa.   On November 8, 2016, four days after the Paris Agreement entered into force in the United States, Donald Trump was elected President of the United States by the Republican Party. . . .