After the British Parliament voted to leave the European Union, all parties said they wanted to avoid a hard border in Ireland, in part because of the historically sensitive nature of the border. Border issues were one of the three priorities negotiated in the proposed withdrawal agreement. Following the UK`s exit from the European Union on 31 January 2020, this border is also the border between the EU and a foreign country. The Brexit withdrawal agreement obliges the UK to maintain an open border in Ireland, so that (in many ways) the de facto border is the Irish Sea between the two islands. Under a pull scheme, the Northern Ireland Protocol, there is no need to control goods along the Irish border when the new uk-EU relationship begins on 1 January. How does it work? And of course, this agreement that we have obtained also allows the government to withdraw clauses 44, 45 and 47 from the BRITISH internal market law and avoids the need for additional provisions in the tax law. We know that we must now continue and give the economy more clarity about what this agreement means to it and how it will work in practice. And we will do that by publishing other guidelines. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.
 On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  The agreement also provides for a transitional period that extends until 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies.